A microprocessor-based onboard computer, a 6 DOF IMU sensor package, five DC motors with encoder feedback for flapping and wing articulation (asymmetric wing folding and leg/tail control), power/comm electronics, carbon-fiber frame, 3D printed parts, and silicone based membrane wings — all at 92 grams.
No motion capture system was used for indoor closed-loop control flight.
A. Ramezani, X. Shi, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, “Bat Bot (B2), A Biologically Inspired Flying Machine,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Stockholm, Sweden, May 16-21, 2016.