There is a fundamental limit to the knowability of the universe. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle tells us that the more precisely we try to define one property, the less definable is its counterpart. Knowing a particle’s location perfectly means its velocity is unknowable. But unmeasured properties are not just uncertain; they are undefined. Quantum mechanics seems to imply that ALL possible properties, paths, or events that could reasonably occur between measurements DO occur. Whether or not this is true, a mathematical description of this crazy idea led to the most powerful expression of quantum mechanics ever devised: Richard Feynman’s path integral formulation.

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