Michio Kaku’s theory on quantifying consciousness suggests consciousness is the number of feedback loops required to create a model of your position in space with relation to other organisms and time.
He believes a thermostat has 1 unit of consciousness – it senses the temperature around it. A flower has around 10 units of consciousness – understands temperature, weather, humidity, gravity, etc.
Level 1 Consciousness: Example – reptiles. Understand position in space.
Level 2 Consciousness: Example – mammal. Understand relation to other organisms – emotions, social hierarchy.
Level 3 Consciousness: Example – humans. Understand relation to time, ability to imagine the future.