Faced with escalating population pressure and new construction technologies, western architects are designing cities in the skies, and under the sea.


If built, these will sit alongside older metropolitan areas such as London, Tokyo and Shanghai, where more and more people are squeezing into built-up areas. The era of megacities is already with us, and the pace of development is escalating. But how can and will people live in these places, and what are the challenges of managing their living environments to ensure that they are fed, have water to drink, clean air to breathe, and can dispose of their waste? Are we facing a utopian or dystopian urban future?